19381011_NYT_frontpage_Kristallnacht

Fast forward to 1938.  Many laws had been in place to oppress Jews since Hitler took over as Chancellor in 1933.  But it came to a head for the world to see in 1938. It became known as Kristallnacht, or the night of the broken glass.  A thousand Jewish synagogues and seven thousand shops were attacked, leaving broken glass in the streets.  But far worse, more than ninety Jews were murdered, and thirty thousand were arrested and put in concentration camps.

The world was outraged. The US recalled its ambassador, but did not break off relations with Germany.  Roosevelt also refused to ease the restrictions on Jewish immigration to the US.

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